Conduit Bending 101

Thought I'd get a conduit bending workshop going here. The only damage you can do is too the pipe, and maybe your ego. Of course, you need to have designed the system correctly. We will do that in Workshop Design.

Let's start with the benders:


From left to right - 1" EMT (or 3/4" GRC), 3/4" EMT (1/2" GRC), 1/2" EMT and 1/2" EMT short radius bender. The two on the left are made by Benfield, the best but they are out of business now. The blue handled one is made by Ideal and the brand most seen on jobsites around here now. The short radius bender is made by Lew Fittings in Chicago but I think they are OOB too. Many municipalities outlawed short radius bends because they make wire pulling so much harder and that could put a strain on the insulation. But there are times when the short radius bend is needed, just make sure it's the only bend in a run and the pipe run is short, if possible. Two short radius bends in the same run will have you yelling at yourself for not heeding my warning.

I've used benders by Gardner-Bender, Greenlee, Klein and a bunch of other brands I'd prefer to forget. If you can find an Ideal bender, buy it. If you find a Benfield at a flea market or something, grab it, immediately! They are the best. Good marks and very accurate. But whatever you do, don't buy one of those 1/2" & 3/4" combos. They will make you hate bending pipe. And forget the built in levels, they are a gimmick. Buy a good level (see below).

A good bender has an arrow and a star marker on it, and graduated degree markings. There is also an indentation in the channel but we'll get to that later.

We're going to start with a simple 10" 90 degree bend on 1/2" EMT. On all benders you have what is called a take-up . It's a number subtracted from whatever length 90 you want to make, when using the arrow on the bender . 1/2" benders have a 5" take-up, 3/4" - 6" TU, 1" - 8" TU. They are usually marked on the bender shoe.

  For a 10" 90, I made a pencil mark at 5" - 10-5=5 . I use pencil because it's harder to see once the pipe is installed. Felt marks all over your work is unprofessional looking.  

Take that pencil mark you made at 5" and place it at the center of the arrow mark on the bender. The take-up deduction is only used when using the arrow mark on the bender. The star we'll talk about later.


The first thing you have to do is apply a good amount of foot pressure on the heel of the bender . If you don't do this, the pipe might kink and almost certainly throw your bend off. You can get an idea how much pressure I'm applying by the indentation in my gym shoe sole and the fact the heel on my other shoe is coming off the ground (gym shoes aren't recommended for pipe bending because the sole is too soft but they work OK for 1/2") . While keeping foot pressure on the heel, begin to pull the handle back. This is done all at once but only for 15-30 degrees at a time. This is the most critical time for keeping good foot pressure on the bender heel. Think of your foot pressure as making the bend and the handle a guiding the bender.

  The bender handle is now perpendicular with the ground. (Keep this in mind, it will help with offsets when we get to that later on.) While you're making the bend, do the bending incrementally. Press you foot down hard on the heel while pulling the handle back. Do this in short bursts, making sure you don't loose foot pressure on the heel. DON"T TRY TO MAKE THE 90 IN ONE MOTION! That's how pipe kinks happen. As you get better, you'll get the hang of how much to bend per shot.  

The 90 is now 10" long, when measured from THE BACK of the bend . Keep this in mind when taking your measurements. If you have a box on the wall and you want to turn the corner with a 90, measure from the side of the box to the wall, subtract for the hanger you'll be using and then subtract the take-up and mark that on your pipe. Then line the mark up with the arrow.


Look, ma, no kinks! If you want a perfect 90, place a level on the floor and see where it reads, then place the level on the 90.

FOOT PRESSURE! FOOT PRESSURE! FOOT PRESSURE! I can't emphasize this more! It's the one part of bending most beginners fail to do. Overdo it initially until you get the hang on how much is needed. The handle is only there to aid the bending your foot is doing. And make all your bends in segments, like 10-30 degrees at a time. The bigger the pipe, the more foot pressure and the more bending segments are needed. I've bent 1-1/4" with a hand bender and it probably takes me 10-15 segments to complete a 90. I practically stomp on the heel while pulling the handle back. It requires all my weight. I am completely off the floor. Even big guys I've worked with have to put most of their weight on the heel with 1-1/4" EMT.

It might not be a bad idea to use a level until you get good at it. And if you want a really professional looking job and don't have a level built into your eyes, a level is a must. This is a nice little level from Greenlee. It does it all.


That thumbscrew is used for making offsets when you don't want a dog in the offset. We'll get to offsets in another post. And yes, I am holding that out into the air and failing to make it read level. But anytime you want to make sure you've bent a perfect 90 or 45 or 30, you need to first make sure the pipe laying horizontal is level, then check the bend.

That covers how to make a 90 0 bend on ½ EMT. The rules of bending conduit with hand benders is the same for all conduit. Bender sizes are rated for EMT. When bending GRC or Aluminum, go up one bender size. For instance, ½ Aluminum Conduit requires a ¾ EMT bender.

Post #3

When you cut conduit WITH A HACKSAW, NOT A PIPE CUTTER , it will leave burrs on the pipe. I use a 32T blade for pretty much all the pipe I cut, up to 1". It makes the smoothest cut but still leaves a burr. So you have to ream the pipe smooth. Pay attention when cutting to make sure the cut is square.

You can buy a pipe reamer if you want. I think Ideal and Greenlee make them. But that's just one more tool you have to buy and carry around. I use Channel Locks for both the inside and outside when reaming and most other electricians do the same, at least us old timers.


As you can see, these Channel Locks don't have insulation on the handles. Years ago, this was standard. That CL in the pictures is probably 30+ years old. Now it seems they all have insulation on them. Some electricians strip off the ends so they can fit inside the pipe for reaming. With Channel Locks, all you have to do is stick the ends in the pipe and twist it back and forth until you feel it's smooth. Your hand will tell you.

You also have to ream the outside so it will fit properly in the fitting (coupling or connector). The jaws fit around the pipe and you twist them back and forth until smooth. You'll have to adjust the jaws to get a comfortable fit. Don't just do the inside! Again, very unprofessional.

This is what the end should look like when you're done.


I'll have to corral our son to pose for pics when covering offsets. It's impossible for me to pose and take pictures. I'm not that fast. unless I get a request to cover something else, I'll do offsets and saddles next.

Post #8

Box offsets can be done with the pipe on the floor but I do them with the bender shoe up, where I can see the roll of the offset. You are trying to roll it exactly 180 degrees. It's two very short bends, 180 degrees from each other. And I mean very short. Box offsets usually go wrong by overbending the first bend. But pipe can be unbent. Take advantage of that with short bends that go wrong.


When you put the shoe in the air, you have to concentrate as much pressure on the part of the pipe closest to the bender shoe as possible. For a box offset, that's only critical in respect to making a sharp bend. As you can imagine, if you put pressure at the other end of the pipe, you'll bend the whole thing. So you place as much pressure as you can close to the bender shoe. You can do it on the ground but it's a pretty small bend. Just bend it the way I showed above a few times and you'll know what I mean. Start by overdoing the pressure and you'll see the result. Then back off until you reach equilibrium.


I've probably owned this over 20 years. The only time I've used it is when I have lots of box offsets to make. And I mean lots . You'll rarely see this in an electrical contractor's gang box. They are more a pain than a time saver.

You have to secure it to something (like the board it's on) or you'll never get an accurate offset. Otherwise, the whole thing rocks as you push the handle down and it's a pain. It's another one of those, "How many tools do you really need to do the job?" Before you plunk down the cash for the offset bender, give the other method a try. Unless you're really impatient or like buying cool looking tools, you won't find any need to own one.

Post #10


Julie, the take up dimension is the distance the mark will be off the initial plane after a 90 degree bend, yes?


The take-up is a dimension fixed for different sized benders when using the ARROW mark on the bender to make the bend.
- The take-up on a 1/2" bender is 5".
- The take-up on a 3/4" bender is 6".
- The take-up on a 1" bender is 8".

This is the amount you will subtract from the actual dimension needed to make a certain length 90. That dimension is measured from whatever point you will be starting - panel, box, end of last piece of installed pipe - to wherever the BACK of the 90 needs to be.

In this case, we subtract the dimension the mini (conduit hanger) spaces the pipe off the wall. Then subtract an additional 5" and use that measurement to make our mark on the pipe (MARK HERE) from the end of the pipe (the end going into the connector on the box). And in all cases lining that mark on the ARROW mark on the bender. You never use the take-up with the STAR mark on the bender. Where you see MARK HERE, is where you made your pencil mark before starting the bend.


Post #19


Julie, I have a quick question about what size conduit to use. I will be putting three wires through the conduit if that is ok. Two circuits of 240 and one 120 circuit. Would that all fit in a 3/4 conduit or would that be too tight? I am going to go out looking at the local pawn shops for a cheap bender today and want to get the right size. Thanks again!

If we start from a point of accepting that our crystal ball can't predict what we will want or need in the future, and anyone who has been there knows the crystal ball usually lies, it's a good idea when installing conduit to load it on the light side.

We're talking workshops and I think we'd be nuts to fool ourselves into installing 15A receptacles with #14 wire in a workshop. So let's assume every wire we pull will be #12 or larger, if the load requires it. With single phase panels, we have (2) hots and (1) neutral. That makes up one network.

If you are installing 1/2" pipe, be kind to yourself and only install (2) networks - a total of 6 wires. I'm sure there are many here who would tell you what a pain it was trying to push a fish tape through a conduit loaded with wires, after they realized they needed another circuit, a switch leg or some other wire downstream. Leave yourself some room for the future.

In commercial construction around here, it's a minimum #12 wire and 3/4" pipe. That's because experience has told us changes will be made. So why not treat your shop that way?

If I can get you to imagine sometime in the future... You just bought a new jointer and you want to install a receptacle for it. But to do so, you have to run another conduit from your panel. And the last time you did that, it was a pain.

Now imagine you installed a larger conduit, or loaded your conduits lightly and all you have to do is pull in some new wire. You'll be patting yourself on the back for thinking ahead. It's a nice feeling.

Which scenario do you like better?

Post #22

Before we go into offsets and saddles, we probably need to discuss the use of the ARROW and the STAR on a bender. As I mentioned before, when using the ARROW mark, you subtract the TAKE-UP from a the overall measurement you need - to the BACK of the 90.

When using the STAR , you do not need to subtract anything BUT you do need to flip the bender around .

  In the top picture I am ready to mark the pipe for a 24" 90. The tape measure has 19" lined up at the ARROW - 24"-5" TAKE-UP=19". From there you stand the bender handle up and make your bend. Note: the heel of the bender is on the opposite side from the end of the pipe. The end of pipe (start of the measurement) the will come off the floor as you bend.

In the bottom picture I've flipped the bender around, in relation to the direction of the bend. Now I have set the POINT of the STAR right on 24". In both cases we end up with a 24" 90. But in the bottom picture, I didn't need to subtract the TAKE-UP but I did need to flip the bender around. Note: the heel is now on the same side of the handle as the end of the pipe. The end of pipe (start of the measurement) the will stay on the floor as you bend.

The STAR is used for many different applications but for now we'll stick with two common uses.
1. The Long 90 - If you are bringing pipe out of a low receptacle box and up into the ceiling joist space, the measurement to make that bend might be 85" or more. Rather than making a mark at 80" and sending 80" of pipe up into the air, you put your mark at 85", flip the bender around as in the lower picture, and then make the bend.

2. The BACK TO BACK 90 - In this case you have to come up out of a box, 90 over a distance, then 90 back down to another box. You might need to get up and over something or you can't come out of the side because the box is nailed to a stud.
  As you can see in the drawing, the center-to-center measurement of the pipe (and box) is 48". But the BACK TO BACK measurement is 48-3/4". That's because the measurement is taken from the BACK of each 90. Since this is 1/2" EMT, that means if you had a center-to-center measurement you'd need to add 3/4", the OD of 1/2" EMT.

The two arrows point to where the marks will end up AFTER the bends are made.

In this case, the first bend was made using the ARROW. It was a 14" 90 so the first mark was made at 9". Then the first bend is made. Once you make that bend, you measure from the BACK of the 90 you just made and mark the pipe at 48-3/4". Then you flip the bender around and set the mark at the POINT of the STAR and bend. To make sure you are right on the back of the first bend, you can take any straight edge (a piece of pipe will do) and lay it against the back edge of the first 90.

Additional help for those who like to learn from books:
  If the yellow one is the same thing that used to come with the Benfield shoe (they used to sell just the shoe and you had to make your own handle) this is a good guide. Both are available at . The one on the right is also at Amazon  

Before you buy any bending books, instructions usually come with a new bender. I'm pretty sure instructions come with Ideal benders. And from what I can see of benders selling today, it looks like Klein would be just as good a choice as Ideal. Good benders last a lifetime so if you can get one at a flea market or off Ebay, do it and save some money.


With regard to planning for future expansion, is it advisable (or even permissible) to include a run of poly twine with the initial conductors to allow for easier pulling of new cables later or do you just suck it up and use a metal fish tape when the time comes? The circuits I'm thinking of adding to my shop will probably be 50-60 ft from end to end, seems like a lot of work to run a fish tape through all that distance.

I've used twine when pulling long runs of ethernet cable and it sure comes in handy the next time I need to add a cable - just attach the cable (plus another run of twine) to the original twine and pull...


On a run as long as 50'-60', yes include a pull string in with the wires. But you have to be careful how you feed them in or the pull string will get twisted in with the other wires and when you go to pull in wires later on, you could have a bear of a time snaking it through the existing wires. When we're pulling big cable, we train them in, in the same formation all through the pull so they don't cross over one another. You can do that with smaller wire but it takes a bit more time. When wires cross over each other, they tend to become much harder to pull in and get out later on.

There is a high strength pull string made just for pulling through conduit. The string we use on the job comes in 5 gallon buckets but you may be able to get it in shorter lengths. If you do get some pull string, you can tie a Baggie (the cheap kind - no zip seals) to the end of it, loosely stuff the baggie in the pipe and take a strong vacuum to the other end, press it down on the pipe and the Baggie & string will zip right through. No fish tape needed.

For anyone buying a fish tape, if you can find the slinky type (Sparks or similar), you'll appreciate how much easier it is to send through the pipe, especially when there's wire already in it. If you don't make the pulling head correctly on the steel tapes, they could be a problem if you get stuck and have to pull it out. I was an apprentice when I found that out. I couldn't get the fish tape through an existing pipe with wire already in it. The pulling head (the loop) was open a bit. When I went to pull it back to regroup, it dug through the insulation of a wire and I heard a pop. Oops! The journeyman I was working with was pretty cool. We pulled out the existing wire and repulled with the new wire we needed.

Post #28

Before we go into offsets and saddles...

Getting an accurate bend: I mentioned before that when using a level, you have to make sure the surface on which the pipe sits is level. In this picture, the bubble is good on the stub up (I know it looks off but it's the wide angle lens), but the bubble on the bottom level shows the floor is not level at that point. Most concrete floors have small peaks and valleys, so you can move the pipe around until you find a level spot, or place a wedge underneath one end so the horizontal section of the pipe is level.
  Measuring the bend:  
  Here, that 10" 90 looks like it's actually 10-1/4". But if you look closely, you can see a gap between the floor and the bottom of the 90. The weight of the outer end of the pipe is resting on a surface not parallel with the surface under the 90.  

When I place my foot close to the 90 I get a 10" measurement. Get in the habit up making sure the 90 is sitting on the floor when making this measurement. BTW, that 1/4" may not seem like a big deal, but it can become one, depending on the installation. When tolerances are very tight and what you are installing to doesn't move, you may find that 1/4" a real pain to deal with.

IMPORTANT! Always make sure the conduit seats fully in the coupling or connector! The conduit and boxes all connect to the panel and make up your case ground. You don't want a weak or faulty case ground. Cuts should be square and the pipe needs to be fully into the fitting. If you're using set screw fittings, the set screw can dimple the end of the pipe in and expose it as a hazard to wire pulling and the insulation.

Post 29:

Stretching and Shrinking a Bend

Let's say the 90 you just made was a bit too short or a bit too long. We're talking an inch or so. If it's too long you can cut it but if it's too short you can't add to that because the coupling is longer than what you need to add. In either case, you can stretch or shrink the pipe faster than the band-aid methods.

Let's say that 10" 90 is about 1/2" too short. Maybe the pipe slipped in the bender before you started the bend or you mis-measured or you had a senior moment. It happens. But there's an easy fix.

You have to start by taking some bend out of the 90. In this case I want to stretch the 90 so I need to take bend out closest to the top of the stub .
  Because the 90 is only 10", I have to place a lot of pressure on the end of it with my foot. With your hands firmly on the pipe, I begin by opening the bend, pushing out and somewhat down, to make sure the bend is opening at the floor and not in the middle or higher.  
  Here, you can see the original pencil mark that was placed at the ARROW in the first bend is now outside the bender completely. I know from experience that the amount of bend I took out and the placement of the original mark, relative to the ARROW, will give me about an extra 1/2". This is not an exact science. You sometimes have to mess with it a while until you get the measurement needed.  

Now I've gained 1/2" over the original 10" measurement. If you need more, you have to take more bend out and slide the original mark a bit farther out. Practice with a bend and you'll get the hang of it pretty quickly.

Post #30:

But what if you need to shrink the 90? Sure, you can cut the end and ream it. But you can shrink it in less time. It's pretty much the flip side of stretching.

In this case you had another mental moment and instead of a 10-1/2" 90 you actually needed a 9-1/2" 90. Now you need to shrink the stub length by a full inch. And to add insult to injury, this will be harder because you have such a short 90.
  If the 90 is short (like this one), place the handle of the bender over the pipe. With handles that have belled ends, you can slide it down further onto the 90. This is a good thing. As before, make sure you are taking bend out at the floor, or in this case, farthest from the end of the 90.  
  We've taken more out of this bend than the previous one because we need to change the dimension 1" now.  
  Here, you'll need to concentrate most of the force on the foot. Your foot should be applying 80-90% of the force when making this bend. I have one hand on the end of the handle and the other on the pipe. When you jam down with your foot, let your hands help a bit in making the bend but make your foot do most of the work. Think like the force of your foot is doing all of the bending.  
  This took me three "shots" to bring the bend back to 90 degrees. Each began with as much foot pressure as I could apply downward and suing my hands to guide the direction of the bend. DON'T ALLOW THE PIPE TO COME OFF THE FLOOR! If the 90 comes off the floor, all the force will be absorbed by the end and you will most likely deform it. With smaller pipe you can fix that with Channel Locks but try not to let that happen, if possible. Very short stubs make avoiding this difficult.  
  Now we've taken the 10-1/2" 90 and shrunk it back to 9-1/2". This is faster and easier than setting the pipe up it to cut it, picking up the hacksaw, cutting it, reaming it, and then returning to where you're working.  

If you look at the radius on the pipe vs. the radius of the bender, you can see they aren't the same anymore. This happens when stretching or shrinking bends. And the more you mess with it, the harder it is to keep close to the original radius. If you had a bunch of conduits coming up out of a panel to the ceiling, and you want them to look nice and uniform, you don't want to get into stretching or shrinking the pipe. The difference in radii will be obvious. Measure twice, bend once.

Post #32:


There are a number of ways to build an offset -
1. You can keep making bends until it works (good luck)
2. You can use a center of bender mark - it takes some practice but once you learn it, it's pretty foolproof, as long as you know your bender well, and that takes a bit of time.
3. You can use a "multiplier". This is the easiest and only requires you make both bends the degree that corresponds to the multiplier.

The Multiplier:
If you are going to make the offset bends 30 degrees, the multiplier is 2. For a 5" offset, center-to-center, you take the offset dimension and multiply it by 2. (5x2=10) When marking your pipe, the distance between Mark 1 and Mark 2 will always be 2x the offset dimension for a 30 degree offset . In this case, 10". When you measure, make sure you get a CENTER-TO-CENTER measurement! If it's easier to get an overall measurement, just subtract the O.D. of the pipe.


These are the multipliers for common offset bends.

  Here's one example:
Let's say you need an offset that is 4" center-to-center . And the first bend needs to be at around 8" from the end of the pipe.
  Here I've marked the pipe at 8" and at 16". The 8" mark is what I need to clear some obstacle, the 16" mark is the offset measurement X the multiplier + 8" , my first mark. What's important is to make sure the first mark and the second mark are 8" apart for this 4" offset. When you make your marks, get into the habit of making them completely around the diameter of the pipe. You'll see why later.  
  Now, this is important! What point on the bender you choose to align your first mark doesn't matter AS LONG AS YOU USE THAT SAME POINT FOR THE SECOND BEND! Here, I've chosen to use the end of the bender. You can see the 16" mark to the left.  
  I've now made my first bend at 30 degrees. The first mark is still at the end of the bend. The 30 degree bubble is one of the many advantages of having that little conduit level. (even though it doesn't look it, it is on the mark, one problem of being model and photographer)  
  I have flipped the bender around with the shoe in the air. You'll see why a couple steps down the page. You can see the 16" mark at the same point I had the 8" mark earlier. Since I made these marks all around the circumference of the pipe, I can see it when I rotated the pipe 180 degrees.  
  With the second mark at the end of the bender, look down the pipe to check alignment. The picture on the left is rotated too far left, the middle too far right. What you want is what's in the picture on the right. (And even that's just a touch too far right.) From here on out, you have to keep some pressure on the pipe so it doesn't rotate or slip in the bender.  
  You are going to make a partial bend now. One hand has to firmly grip the pipe CLOSE TO THE BENDER SHOE . Just as before, keeping pressure close to where the pipe is being bent is important, if you don't want kinks or irregular radii. Your other hand will be farther back on the pipe and you may want to brace your foot against the end of the handle that's resting on the floor. With larger pipe this becomes a must.  
  You only have to make a partial bend. This does two things, it clears the end of the pipe and creates a bend that makes losing the rotational alignment harder. At this point you return the bender shoe and pipe back to the floor. Make sure the pipe doesn't slip or rotate. If it does, realign it before returning the bender shoe to the floor.  
  With the partial bend already being made, the end of the pipe is off the floor, enough to allow the bender to rest firmly on the floor. Now you can finish the offset. As you do, you can either check the bubble for level (if you're using a level) or place a tape measure at the end of the pipe and stop bending once the bottom hits 4".  

With the bubble now reading level, the measurement from the floor to the bottom of the pipe is exactly 4". And the offset is parallel with the rest of the pipe.

If you wanted a 45 degree offset, then you would have used 1.414 as the multiplier for the 4" offset. 4x1.414=5.656 or about 5-5/8". If your first mark was 8", your second mark would be 13-5/8". And your first bend would be 45 degrees. But you have to be careful about trying to make an offset that is difficult to impossible to build. If the multiplier dimension is too small, you'll find your first bend interfering with your ability to place the second mark at the proper point on the bender.

Post #47:

Adding A Kick To A Pipe

Sometimes it's better to kick a pipe rather than try to make an elaborate bend. In this case, we want to kick a 90.
  First thing you want to do is make sure the 90 is level. To do that, let the toe of the bender sit flush on the floor. The toe has "outriggers" that you feel when you rock the handle side-to-side. That needs to sit flush. Then check the 90 to make sure it's level. All it takes is tapping the end on the floor if you want to raise it up, or loosen the pressure on the bender to let it drop. Once that's set, begin the bend.  
  From this angle it looks like I put about a 4-1/2" inch kick in the pipe, to the top of the pipe. Remember you need to take into consideration the O.D. of the pipe when getting your kick measurement.  
  This is what you actually see. It's a good practice to measure to the top of the pipe. That way, it's easier to see when standing at the bender. Don't let the pipe slip in the bender! That could mess up your bend.  

From here you can see the kick was actually 4-5/8". This is why it's important to get a good reading when making the bend, and that usually means lowering your head to get a better look. If you need less of a kick, stand on the pipe that is resting on the floor and tap the bender shoe down on the bend or do it with your foot. If you need more, just add a little bend.

If you were running this pipe up a column and wanted to kick the 90 around to the side of the column, chances are the radius of the 90 will get in the way. So it's important to visualize the bend before making it. 1/2" EMT and, to a lesser degree, 3/4" EMT are pretty easy to work with. If you make a mistake, the fix is usually fairly easy.

Post #48:

Fixing A Boo-Boo

It happens all the time, you make a bend then check it against a level and find it's off. This is where it's good to have a creative mind, as well as an understanding of physics.
  So here's what the pipe that has been used in the demo looks like now. The 90 looks a bit off, and it is, but not as much as it looks like in the picture. Anyway, we want to get that fixed.  
  It may not look bad but now but once you try to install something like this, the error will be pretty obvious. To get this right we have to turn the bend clockwise.  
  This is where a creative mind and physics come into play. If we begin turning the bend, the bend of the offset that sits under the TS base will want to come off the floor. The TS base is raised just enough for me to fit the pipe under it and keeps that bend in the offset from lifting.  
  I place the bender handle over the 90 and begin the rotation, moving the handle to the left, in this picture. What you don't see is when I begin working the pipe, I have one foot on the pipe right where the kick is. This keeps the pipe on the floor completely and makes the fix much easier to do. A little rotatation of the handle, check with the level, a bit more handle rotatotation and...  
  Right on the money.

Fixed objects work wonders when fine tuning a bend or making a fix. On the jobsite, not a day goes by that some electrician is looking for that perfect fixed object to firmly hold the pipe while making a correction. So don't be upset with yourself if you make a mistake. Practice with 1/2" EMT and you can fix just about anything.
  In the next Chapter, we will look into creating a layout for a basic workshop.  


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